The Introduction stage corresponds to the system design category in the classification proposed in this paper, while the remaining steps are within the component design category. Rosen, D.W. (2014), “Research supporting principles for design for additive manufacturing”, Virtual and Physical Prototyping, Vol. 12, p. 121014, available at: http://manufacturingscience.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/article.aspx?doi=10.1115/1.4033957, Bikas, H., Stavropoulos, P. and Chryssolouris, G. (2016), “Additive manufacturing methods and modelling approaches: a critical review”, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. (2016), “(Re)design for additive manufacturing”, Procedia CIRP, Vol. 141-147, available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scriptamat.2017.02.029, Jhabvala, J., Boillat, E., André, C. and Glardon, R. (2012), “An innovative method to build support structures with a pulsed laser in the selective laser melting process”, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. To take full advantage of the manufacturing technology it is important to think outside the box and not get stuck on conventional design thoughts, No commercial CAE tool is available for transforming initial shapes into shapes suitable for AM, hence traditional CAD programs have to be used. and Chabrand, P. (2017), “Topology optimization and additive manufacturing: comparison of conception methods using industrial codes”, Journal of Manufacturing Systems, Vol. Existing DfAM research has been divided into three main groups – component, part and process design – and based on the review of existing DfAM methods, a proposal for a DfAM process has been compiled. A proposed framework that uses the same steps as presented earlier but using design automation is shown in Figure 7. 7, p. A6, available at: www.ijsmdo.org/10.1051/smdo/2016009, Ponche, R., Kerbrat, O., Mognol, P. and Hascoet, J.Y. One of the most frequently claimed advantages of additive manufacturing (AM) is ‘Complexity for free’. Zhu et al. Thinking outside the box when setting designing for AM on a system level is something that is highlighted by Emmelmann et al. Energy-related settings include the power of the energy source, spot size, pulse duration and pulse frequency. Background. Kranz et al. Some of the requirements are strict (such as maximum stresses in the component and hard manufacturing constraints), while others (such as minimizing the amount of support) are more a matter of wishes and could be treated as either constraints or objectives. The Additive Manufacturing team at GE Research is working on technologies to make metal additive manufacturing faster, more reliable, and more pervasive in manufacturing. 159-179, available at: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1474034612000092 (accessed 4 August 2017). The first alternative is estimated to be time consuming and it is still not guaranteed that a part this is suitable for AM will be achieved. Reuse and automated handling of process settings and parameters in a KBE system are also discussed by Liu and Rosen (2010). Part of the framework was implemented in a case study where topology optimization, support structure evaluation and an FEM model for calculating stress were combined in a multidisciplinary framework (Wiberg et al., 2018). A Renishaw RenAM 500M metal AM system printed a series of representative titanium spinal implants, aimed at the cervical spine (c spine). Experience value could be added by integrating more or improving the existing functionality of a product. Rocca, G.L. Many different reviews in the area have been performed during recent years (Gao et al., 2015; Yang and Zhao, 2015; Kumke et al., 2016; Laverne et al., 2014; Rosen, 2014; Thompson et al., 2016), and this article contributes a novel design process for AM viewed through the eyes of a design engineer, a proposal for a DfAM process covering each step in the design process including coupling to existing design methods and tools for each step. Boston, MA, available at: http://libris.kb.se/bib/11827629 (accessed 3 August 2017). (2015), “Bidirectional evolutionary structure optimization (BESO) based design method for lattice structure to be fabricated by additive manufacturing”, Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 2, pp. ASTM (2013), “ASTM standard f2792, standard terminology for additive manufacturing technologies”. 49 Nos 7/8, pp. 1, pp. It has gone through tremendous improvements over the past few decades and has matured from simple prototyping to actual manufacturing and tooling. In this paper, we focus on cellular Design for additive manufacturing of cellular structures free download Wiberg, A., Persson, J. and Ölvander, J. It is stated that, in most cases, the TO shape cannot be manufactured directly and needs to be manipulated. When and how the build direction should be chosen is discussed in, For the AM preparation step, the same software list as in step 7 is recommended. Fourth is the possibility to create more efficient designs, based on the fact that a more complex part is not more expensive to manufacture than a simple part (Klahn et al., 2014). 1, pp. The categories should be seen as chronological steps where there are formulated goals for each step. Automated methods for choosing the best build direction to minimize the amount of support structure are presented in (Strano et al., 2013a, 2013b) and (Zwier and Wits, 2016). Additive manufacturing has the potential to revolutionize the production of aerospace and defense components. Rudolph and Emmelmann (2017) present a methodology with corresponding algorithms to automatically compare a component with design rules for SLS and SLM, and to verify that they are fulfilled. Compared to existing categorizations, these categories have a perspective on the design process and divide up the research based on when and how the research could be useful for a design engineer, designing a product or component for AM. The method uses the design rules of maximum part dimension (to fit into the build chamber), minimum wall thickness, gap dimensions, cylinder diameter and diameter of holes. (2006), “A partial shrinkage model for selective laser sintering of a two-component metal powder layer”, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 47 No. By optimizing the index, the number of support structures needed and other details that are difficult to manufacture using AM were reduced. One such feature is lattice, cellular or grid structures which reduce the weight of a structure while preserving good mechanical properties. Kolossov, S., et al., (2004), “3D FE simulation for temperature evolution in the selective laser sintering process”, International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, Vol. The purpose of the following paragraphs is to give an overview of existing methodologies before a compilation of the existing methodologies in the form of a detailed method covering the whole design process is presented in Figure 6. The manufacturing settings could be divided into four types: energy-related, scan-related, powder-related and temperature-related. (2017) compare different commercial software for TO. Published by Emerald Publishing Limited. DfAM is the category specialized in components manufactured with AM. 2, pp. The results are compared based on the amount of material needed and the maximum von Mises stress received from the software. 12, pp. This method uses several topology optimizations with different densities which, in the final design, are represented by graded density lattice structures. In homogeneous structures the standard cells have the same size everywhere in the design, while in heterogeneous structures the standard cell can vary in size (Tang et al., 2015). Ranjan et al. 26 No. Bin Maidin (2012) proposes a system design approach where the function is at the centre but is combined with a database consisting of different design features that take full advantage of the AM potential. (2016) use a similar method but supplement the FE model with surrogate modelling to perform more design evaluations. (2016) have divided the simulation approaches into three categories, analytical, numerical and empirical, based on which principle is used. A good overview of the research into simulation models for residual stress in components manufactured using LBM is also given by Patterson et al. Dordlofva and Törlind (2017) address where knowledge is lacking to verify components for the space industry. Exactly which steps should be incorporated into the process design step could be argued, but in this review all steps from design to manufacturing are discussed. However there is a need for greater knowledge and experience to obtain correct calculations. 138-143, available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.procir.2014.03.145, Klahn, C., Leutenecker, B. and Meboldt, M. (2015), “Design strategies for the process of additive manufacturing”, Procedia CIRP, Vol. Tools for the evaluation of support structure are presented in Table VIII. The first observation is for the term additive manufacturing that is a stated by ASTM and ISO in 2013 (ASTM, 2013), both before and after several other terms were used. You can join in the discussion by joining the community or logging in here.You can also find out more about Emerald Engage. 12 Nos 3/4, pp. – The purpose of this paper is to present Design Rules for additive manufacturing and a method for their development. 5, pp. Chiu and Lin (2016) have investigated the possibility of producing a simulated business case to define whether or not a product is suitable for converting to AM, including a cost model combined with DfAM to optimize the cost based on the design and the production technique. Are chosen where knowledge is lacking to verify components for the evaluation of support structure directly! To design products system are also discussed by Rudolph and Emmelmann ( 2017 ) areas within which the frequently... 20-28, available at: http: //proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx? articleid=1271275 manufacturing itself achieving this are image recognition or based! 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